Definition of Universal Donor and Recipient
A person is called universal donor who can donate his/her blood to any person with any kind of blood group. Such people are with O- blood group and are called universal blood cell donors. However, opposite to this, a universal recipient can take blood safely from anyone. People with AB+ group are considered as universal recipients.
Some more Facts about different Blood Groups
The universal donors are classified on the basis of the ABO blood type of system. According to this system, human beings can be divided into four blood groups: A, B, AB and O. Each blood group is divided by the presence of antigens on the blood cells.
- People with A blood group possess A antigens in their body
- People with B blood group possess B antigens in their body
- People with AB blood group possess both A as well as B antigens in their body
- Whereas people with O blood group possess no or nil antigens in their body
In a layman’s term antigens are something through which antibodies are produced, which are responsible for strong and weak immune system. That means, with the presence of less antigen any infectious disease like fever can take into its grip easily.
- In case a person with ‘A’ blood group type is provided with blood through a person having ‘B’ blood group then the recipient’s blood (person having ‘A’ blood group) will react with the antigens of the donor (person having ‘B’ blood group). And this will result in triggering a transfusion reaction.
- However, O blood can be provided to any kind of blood type, as there are not antigens present in the donor’s blood to react with the body of the recipient.
- Furthermore, blood groups can be classified on the basis “+” and “-“ symbols that is dependent upon presence Rhesus or Rh factor blood group system. In case the Rh factor is present, the blood is “positive” and if it is not present the blood group is “negative”.
So according to the afore-mentioned classifications the blood types are divided into A-, A+, B-, B+, AB-, AB+, O- and O+. Sometimes due to slight mistake, complications can arise, such as- the presence of Rh factor can be responsible for a transfusion reaction in patient with negative blood group. So, B- blood group donor should never give blood to patient with B+ blood group recipient as it can prove to be very unsafe.
With few exceptions, patients can be provided with O- blood group as in certain cases it not an ideal procedure. The best and safest blood for a patient to get is an exact match for both type of Rh factor in the body.
Therefore a cross-matching test is performed by the doctors to match the exact blood compatibilities of the donor with the recipient.